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Properties and Applications of Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) 2024-1-02

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), ≥ 550 MPa TS: Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) usually refer to steel types that are strengthened through phase transformation, and the structure contains martensite, bainite and/or residual Austenite. Including duplex steel, TRIP steel, composite steel and martensitic steel, etc. The strength and plasticity of advanced high-strength steel are far superior to ordinary high-strength steel. The combination of high strength and high formability makes it widely used in construction, offshore platforms, mechanical lifting, footbridges, foundation engineering, etc.

In this area, quenched and tempered (Q&T) and thermo-mechanically rolled high-strength products are most popular.

High strength steel applications
construction and renovation
bridge construction
Playground Equipment
Offshore platforms
Using high-strength quenched steel with increased wear resistance to manufacture and repair steel structures and machine components has numerous advantages:
  • Reduce the weight of products and structures while maintaining strength properties
  • Increased payload capacity
  • Reduce transportation, assembly and installation costs
  • Reduce repair and maintenance costs
  • Comprehensive wear resistance, crack resistance and deformation resistance

Due to the properties mentioned above, high-strength steel delivered in the quenched and tempered condition is widely used in heavy engineering, construction and other industries. Heavy-duty above-ground, underground and hoisting machinery manufacturing accounts for more than 70% of quenched steel plate consumption.

Application of high strength quenched and tempered steel Applications
Heavy ground machinery manufacturing Excavator buckets and other accessories
Dump truck body
Asphalt machine flat plate
grader blades
Heavy ground machinery manufacturing Excavator buckets and other accessories
Dump truck body
Asphalt machine flat plate
grader blades
Underground machinery manufacturing Conveyor connection parts
Reinforcement of load-bearing components of mining machinery
Mining equipment accessories
Lifting equipment manufacturing Port crane clamshell type
Bridge crane load layering components
Heavy machine boom, etc.
mining Receiver box and screen
Surge tanks and vibrating feeders
cone crusher
Heavy and general machinery manufacturing Concrete plant equipment wearing parts
Plate and gravel feeding tank for concrete mixer
Linings for buckets and bodies of rail cars and wheeled equipment
Consumable parts for machines and equipment
put up Offshore platform load-bearing components
Elements of wind turbine towers
Bridge and trestle elements
Repair and delivery Refurbishment of individual wear parts of the above equipment at the end customer’s premises or in a specialized repair workshop

High-strength steel can significantly extend the service life of equipment and machinery, reduce the frequency of machine replacement and repair, and reduce downtime.

The advantages of thermomechanically rolled products come from their key properties such as low carbon equivalent, high strength and high impact toughness. Compared with conventional steel, TMСР rolled products show greater efficiency during processing: reduced costs for welding consumables, no preheating of the steel and additional heat treatment, reduced overall steel strength of the structure, shortened project implementation time.

High strength steel is mainly used in construction and different engineering industries.

The use of high-strength thermo-mechanically rolled steel instead of ordinary structural steel greatly reduces the steel strength of civil structures due to the use of columns with thinner walls and flanges, but the compressive strength properties are the same. For example, using TMCP boards to make welded columns of modern commercial high-rise buildings can save 20-30% of steel. When used in an open truck structure, TMCP panels reduce its weight by 30-35% (and correspondingly increase its payload capacity).

Classification and properties of high-strength steel

High-strength steel delivered in the quenched and tempered condition is manufactured in accordance with EN 10025-6, DSTU EN 10025-6, ASTM A514/А514М, ASTM A517/А517М, GOST 19281, etc., as well as the manufacturer’s internal regulations.

standard High strength steel Approximate levels of mechanical properties according to standards
Yield strength, MPa Tensile strength, MPa
EN 10025-6
DSTU EN 10025-6
S460Q, S460QL, S460QL1 Not less than 460 550-720
S500Q、S500QL、S500QL1 Not less than 500 590-770
S550Q、S550QL、S550QL1 Not less than 550 640-820
S620Q、S620QL、S620QL1 Not less than 620 700-890
S690Q、S690QL、S690QL1 Not less than 690 770-940
S890Q、S890QL、S890QL1 Not less than 890 940-1100
S960Q、S960QL Not less than 960 980-1150
ASTM A514/A514M A514-B MT 620-690 690-895
A514-Q MT 620-690 690-895
A514-H MT 620-690 690-895
A514-F MT 620-690 690-895
A514-E MT 620-690 690-895
A517-F 620-690 725-930
A517-B 620-690 725-930
A517-Q 620-690 725-930
ASTM A537/A537M A537,Category 2,3 380-415 550-690
GOST 6713 10HSND Not less than 390 530-685
15HSND Not less than 345 490-685
GOST 19281 10HSND Not less than 390 Not less than 510
15HSND Not less than 345 Not less than 490
09G2S Not less than 350 Not less than 500
16G2AF Not less than 450 Not less than 600
Spec. 14-1-5334-96 16HGMFTR Not less than 580 Not less than 680
Spec. 14-1-5517-2005 16H2GSB 590-835 690-930
Spec. U 77-096-173-2001 25HGSR Not less than 620 Not less than 800
Spec. U 27.1-26416904-150:2005 06G2B Not less than 440 Not less than 540
06GB Not less than 355 Not less than 450

High-strength steels delivered in thermomechanically rolled conditions are manufactured in accordance with EN 10025-4, DSTU EN 10025-4 and EN 10149-2 and other regulatory documents and under the manufacturer’s own brand.

standard High strength steel Approximate levels of mechanical properties according to standards
Minimum yield strength, MPa Tensile strength, MPa
EN 10149-2 S315MC 315 390-510
S355MC 355 430-550
S420MC 420 480-620
S460MC 460 520-670
S500MC 500 550-700
S550MC 550 600-760
S600MC 600 650-820
S650MC 650 700-880
S700MC 700 750-950
S900MC 900 930-1200
S960MC 960 980-1250
EN 10025-4,
DSTU EN 10025-4
S275M, S275ML 275 370-530
S355M, S355ML 355 470-630
S420M, S420ML 420 520-680
S460M, S460ML 460 540-720
Production of high-strength steel plates

High-strength steel is produced in reversing rolling mills by hot deformation of semi-finished steel such as cast or rolled slabs. The plates are strengthened during the final stages of rolling and cooling in the rolling mill or by off-line heat treatment.

Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) High Strength Steel thermomechanical rolling
high strength steel
Technology and performance Offline heat treatment or direct quenching
Improve the wear resistance of rolled products
Comprehensive wear resistance, crack resistance and deformation resistance
Special online rolling conditions
Low carbon equivalent
High strength and impact toughness
Benefits to consumers Reduce weight while maintaining strength properties
Increased payload capacity
Reduce material input
Reduce welding time and costs
No additional heat treatment required
Steel mills are lighter compared to conventional steel grades
Cold forming possibilities

Quenching is the heating of steel above the phase transformation temperature followed by rapid cooling (in water, oil, polymer or ether mixtures, etc.) at a rate above the critical speed. The heating temperature and cooling medium are selected according to the chemical composition of the steel and the required structural conditions. After quenching, steel acquires a non-equilibrium metastable structure with high strength (up to 2500 MPa), hardness (up to 600-650 Vickers), wear resistance and brittleness. Quenching can involve specifically heating the steel after rolling or using the heat of rolling (called direct quenching).

Thermo-mechanically controlled processes (rolling; TMCP) require careful control of sheet temperature and deformation during rolling. The properties obtained after TMCP cannot be achieved by normalizing or other types of heat treatments. The final fine-grained microstructure of the steel is obtained by microalloying, rolling within a temperature range and controlled cooling (as well as accelerated cooling using an air-water mixture).

Due to their high strength, weldability and resistance to embrittlement, TMCP steel products can be used in structures with operating temperatures up to -50°C and guaranteed impact strength values.